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ECTS credits reflect the quantity of work; ECTS grades represent its quality. Student performance is documented by a local/national grade. It is good practice to add an equivalent ECTS grade, in particular in case of credit transfer. The ECTS grading scale ranks the students on a statistical basis. Therefore, school statistical data on students’ performances is a prerequisite for implementing the ECTS grading system.

Each institution awards marks/grades on the basis of its normal procedures and system and these marks form part of the Student Transcript.

The ECTS scale is designed as a facilitating scale to improve transparency but not to cause interference with the normal process of awarding marks by the institution, nor does it attempt to impose uniformity. Within the broad parameters set out below, each institution makes its own decision on the precise application of the scale.

The ECTS grading scale can provide additional information about the student’s performance to complement the information provided by the institution’s grade.

Grades are assigned to students with a passing grade:

A distinction is made between the grades FX and F that are used for failing students. FX means: “fail - some more work required to pass” and F means: “fail - considerable further work required”. The inclusion of failure rates in the Transcript of Records is optional.

Other grading symbols: